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But the present Institute of International Relations does not hire foreign teachers, to avoid the danger that its students might be recognised when sent abroad as clandestine agents.
As long as they refrain from directly subversive activities, they are considered as well-behaved "military diplomats".
Some bureaus under the Second Department which are responsible for espionage in different regions, of which the First Bureau is responsible for collecting information in the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau , and also in Taiwan.
Agents are dispatched by the Second Department to companies and other local corporations to gain cover. The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group assigned to Hong Kong and Macau in the mids mostly operated in the mass media, political, industrial, commercial, and religious circles, as well as in universities and colleges.
The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group was mainly responsible for the following three tasks:. It was further awarded another Citation for Merit, Second Class, in Its current status is not publicly known.
The Third Department of the Joint Staff Department is responsible for monitoring the telecommunications of foreign armies and producing finished intelligence based on the military information collected.
The communications stations established by the Third Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters are not subject to the jurisdiction of the provincial military district and the major theater command of where they are based.
The communications stations are entirely the agencies of the Third Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters which have no affiliations to the provincial military district and the military region of where they are based.
The personnel composition, budgets, and establishment of these communications stations are entirely under the jurisdiction of the Third Department of the General PLA General Staff Headquarters, and are not related at all with local troops.
As of the late s, SIGINT systems included several dozen ground stations, half a dozen ships, truck-mounted systems, and airborne systems.
As of the late s, the Third Department was allegedly manned by approximately 20, personnel, with most of their linguists trained at the Luoyang Institute of Foreign Languages.
Ever since the s, the Second and Third Departments of the Joint Staff Headquarters have established a number of institutions of secondary and higher learning for bringing up "special talents.
Though the distribution order they received upon graduation indicated the "Joint Staff Headquarters", many of the graduates of these schools found themselves being sent to all parts of the country, including remote and uninhabited backward mountain areas.
The reason is that the monitoring and control stations under the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters are scattered in every corner of the country.
In normal times, these two communications stations report directly to the Central Military Commission and the Joint Staff Headquarters.
Units responsible for co-ordination are the communications stations established in the garrison provinces of the military regions by the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters.
By taking direct command of military communications stations based in all parts of the country, the CPC Central Military Commission and the Joint Staff Headquarters can not only ensure a successful interception of enemy radio communications , but can also make sure that none of the wire or wireless communications and contacts among major military regions can escape the detection of these communications stations, thus effectively attaining the goal of imposing a direct supervision and control over all major military regions , all provincial military districts , and all group armies.
SIGINT stations, therefore, are scattered through the country, for domestic as well as international interception.
Of the stations apparently targeting Russia, there are sites at Jilemutu and Jixi in the northeast, and at Erlian and Hami near the Mongolian border.
There is a large facility at Dayi, and, according to Ball, "numerous" small posts along the Indian border. Other significant facilities are located near Shenyang , near Jinan and in Nanjing and Shanghai.
Additional stations are in the Fujian and Guangdong military districts opposite Taiwan. China also has ship and aircraft platforms in this area, under the South Sea Fleet headquarters at Zhanjiang immediately north of the island.
There are also truck-mounted mobile ground systems, as well as ship, aircraft, and limited satellite capability.
There are at least 10 intelligence-gathering auxiliary vessels. As of the late nineties, the Chinese did not appear to be trying to monitor the United States Pacific Command to the same extent as does Russia.
In future, this had depended, in part, on the status of Taiwan. This department is responsible for electronic countermeasures , requiring them to collect and maintain data bases on electronic signals.
It is responsible for overseeing the political education, indoctrination and discipline that is a prerequisite for advancement within the PLA. The department conducts ideological and political work on foreign armies, explaining China's policies, and disintegrate enemy armies by dampening their morale.
It is also tasked with instigating rebellions and disloyalty within the Taiwan military and other foreign militaries.
The Liaison Office has dispatched agents to infiltrate Chinese-funded companies and private institutions in Hong Kong.
Their mission is counter-espionage , monitoring their own agents, and preventing and detecting foreign intelligence services buying off Chinese personnel.
It includes highly trained soldiers, a team of commander, assistant commander, sniper, spotter, machine-gun supporter, bomber, and a pair of assault groups.
The name changes frequently. China has reportedly developed a force capable of carrying out long-range airborne operations, long-range reconnaissance, and amphibious operations.
Formed in China's Guangzhou military region and known by the nickname "Sword of Southern China", the force supposedly receives army, air force, and naval training, including flight training, and is equipped with "hundreds of high-tech devices", including global-positioning satellite systems.
All of the force's officers have completed military staff colleges, and 60 percent are said to have university degrees. Soldiers are reported to be cross-trained in various specialties, and training is supposed to encompass a range of operational environments.
It is far from clear whether this unit is considered operational by the Chinese. It is also not clear how such a force would be employed.
Among the missions mentioned were "responding to contingencies in various regions" and "cooperating with other services in attacks on islands".
According to the limited reporting, the organisation appears to be in a phase of testing and development and may constitute an experimental unit.
While no size for the force has been revealed, there have been Chinese media claims that "over 4, soldiers of the force are all-weather and versatile fighters and parachutists who can fly airplanes and drive auto vehicles and motor boats".
According to the United States Defense Department , China is developing kinetic-energy weapons, high-powered lasers, high-powered microwave weapons , particle-beam weapons , and electromagnetic pulse weapons with its increase of military fundings.
The PLA has said of reports that its modernisation is dependent on sales of advanced technology from American allies "Some people have politicized China's normal commercial cooperation with foreign countries, smearing our reputation.
According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 's data, China became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in —14, an increase of percent from the period — China supplied major arms to 35 states in — A significant percentage just over 68 percent of Chinese exports went to three countries: Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.
China also exported major arms to 18 African states. Examples of China's increasing global presence as an arms supplier in —14 included deals with Venezuela for armoured vehicles and transport and trainer aircraft, with Algeria for three frigates, with Indonesia for the supply of hundreds of anti-ship missiles and with Nigeria for the supply of a number of unmanned combat aerial vehicles.
Following rapid advances in its arms industry, China has become less dependent on arms imports, which decreased by 42 percent between — and — Russia accounted for 61 percent of Chinese arms imports, followed by France with 16 percent and Ukraine with 13 per cent.
Helicopters formed a major part of Russian and French deliveries, with the French designs produced under licence in China.
Over the years, China has struggled to design and produce effective engines for combat and transport vehicles. It continued to import large numbers of engines from Russia and Ukraine in —14 for indigenously designed combat, advanced trainer and transport aircraft, and for naval ships.
It also produced British-, French- and German-designed engines for combat aircraft, naval ships and armoured vehicles, mostly as part of agreements that have been in place for decades.
There is a belief in the western military doctrines that the PLA have already begun engaging countries using cyber-warfare. Cyberwarfare has gained recognition as a valuable technique because it is an asymmetric technique that is a part of Chinese Information Operations.
As is written by two PLAGF Colonels, Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, "Methods that are not characterised by the use of the force of arms, nor by the use of military power, nor even by the presence of casualties and bloodshed, are just as likely to facilitate the successful realisation of the war's goals, if not more so.
While China has long been suspected of cyber spying , on 24 May the PLA announced the existence of their cyber security squad. In February , the United States government indicted members of China's People's Liberation Army for the Equifax data breach , which involved hacking into Equifax and plundering sensitive data as part of a massive heist that also included stealing trade secrets, though the Chinese Communist Party denied these claims.
In , China decided to proceed with a nuclear weapons program. The decision was made after the United States threatened the use of nuclear weapons against China should it take action against Quemoy and Matsu , coupled with the lack of interest of the Soviet Union for using its nuclear weapons in defence of China.
After their first nuclear test China claims minimal Soviet assistance before on 16 October , China was the first state to pledge no-first-use of nuclear weapons.
In , China tested a fully functional hydrogen bomb , only 32 months after China had made its first fission device.
China thus produced the shortest fission-to-fusion development known in history. China became a major international arms exporter during the s. China acceded to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty NPT in and supported its indefinite and unconditional extension in Nuclear weapons tests by China ceased in , when it signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and agreed to seek an international ban on the production of fissile nuclear weapons material.
In , China committed to provide assistance to unsafeguarded nuclear facilities. The Zangger Committee is a group which meets to list items that should be subject to IAEA inspections if exported by countries, which have, as China has, signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty.
In September , China issued detailed nuclear export control regulations. China began implementing regulations establishing controls over nuclear-related dual-use items in China also has decided not to engage in new nuclear co-operation with Iran even under safeguards , and will complete existing co-operation, which is not of proliferation concern, within a relatively short period.
Based on significant, tangible progress with China on nuclear nonproliferation, President Clinton in took steps to bring into force the US—China Agreement on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation.
Beijing has deployed a modest ballistic missile force, including land and sea-based intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMs.
China's nuclear program follows a doctrine of minimal deterrence , which involves having the minimum force needed to deter an aggressor from launching a first strike.
The current efforts of China appear to be aimed at maintaining a survivable nuclear force by, for example, using solid-fuelled ICBMs in silos rather than liquid-fuelled missiles.
China's published deterrence policy states that they will "uphold the principles of counterattack in self-defense and limited development of nuclear weapons", but "has never entered, and will never enter into a nuclear arms race with any country".
It goes on to describe that China will never undertake a first strike, or use nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear state or zone.
The PLA is responsible for the Chinese space program. The PLA started the development of an anti-ballistic and anti-satellite system in the s, code named Project , including ground-based lasers and anti-satellite missiles.
Only a few pictures have appeared since it was revealed in late Tests with speeds up to Mach 20 were reached around Military spending for the People's Liberation Army has grown about 10 percent annually over the last 15 years.
According to SIPRI , China became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in —, an increase of per cent from the period — A significant percentage just over 68 per cent of Chinese exports went to three countries: Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.
Examples of China's increasing global presence as an arms supplier in — included deals with Venezuela for armoured vehicles and transport and trainer aircraft, with Algeria for three frigates, with Indonesia for the supply of hundreds of anti-ship missiles and with Nigeria for the supply of a number of unmanned combat aerial vehicles.
Following rapid advances in its domestic arms industry, China has become less dependent on arms imports, which decreased by 42 per cent between — and — Former-United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates has urged China to be more transparent about its military capabilities and intentions.
China announced 's budget as 1. Until the mids the PLA had extensive commercial enterprise holdings in non-military areas, particularly real estate.
Almost all of these holdings were supposedly spun off in the mids. In most cases, the management of the companies remained unchanged, with the PLA officers running the companies simply retiring from the PLA to run the newly formed private holding companies.
The history of PLA involvement in commercial enterprises began in the s and s. Because of the socialist state-owned system and from a desire for military self-sufficiency, the PLA created a network of enterprises such as farms, guest houses, and factories intended to financially support its own needs.
One unintended side effect of the Deng-era economic reforms was that many of these enterprises became very profitable.
For example, a military guest house intended for soldier recreation could be easily converted into a profitable hotel for civilian use.
There were two main factors which increased PLA commercial involvement in the s. One was that running profitable companies decreased the need for the state to fund the military from the government budget.
The second was that in an environment where legal rules were unclear and political connections were important, PLA influence was very useful. By the early s party officials and high military officials were becoming increasingly alarmed at the military's commercial involvement for a number of reasons.
The military's involvement in commerce was seen to adversely affect military readiness and spread corruption. Further, there was great concern that having an independent source of funding would lead to decreased loyalty to the party.
The result of this was an effort to spin off the PLA's commercial enterprises into private companies managed by former PLA officers, and to reform military procurement from a system in which the PLA directly controls its sources of supply to a contracting system more akin to those of Western countries.
The separation of the PLA from its commercial interests was largely complete by the year It was met with very little resistance, as the spinoff was arranged in such a way that few lost out.
The firms have been enumerated under a law which mandates that a list be kept of PLA firms which "provide commercial services, manufacture, produce or export".
As such the firms, some of which are listed on stock exchanges, are liable to be sanctioned by the US and include: .
The Central Military Commission adopted the song on 25 July The lyrics of the anthem were written by Gong Mu and the music was composed by Zheng Lücheng.
The PLA's insignia consists of a roundel with a red star bearing the Chinese characters for Eight One , referring to the Nanchang uprising which began on 1 August From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Combined military forces of the People's Republic of China. Flag of the People's Liberation Army The characters are "8. Main article: History of the People's Liberation Army.
Further information: Military history of China before See also: North China Military Exercise. See also: List of Chinese wars and battles.
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International Assessment and Strategy Center. In the presence of metal catalysts, lactide undergoes a ring-opening polymerization process to form high-density PLA.
Research is ongoing to come up with even more eco-friendly and cheaper methods of producing PLA. In addition the agricultural produce itself, crop residue such as stems, straw, husks, and leaves, can be processed and used as alternative carbohydrate sources.
Residue that cannot be fermented can be used as a heat source to lessen the use of fossil fuel-derived hydrocarbons. One of the major advantages of PLA is its biodegradable nature and the sustainable process by which it is made, making it the environmentally friendly choice of plastic.
Under the right circumstances, PLA can break down into its natural elements in less than a month in contrast to the centuries it will take for traditional plastics to decompose.
PLA is especially suitable in short lifespan applications such as in water bottles and food containers. The process by which PLA Is made is also more environment-friendly.
In addition to using renewable raw materials, emission of greenhouse gases during production is also lower.
Because carbon dioxide is consumed during the growth of corn, the net greenhouse gas emission of the overall PLA production process can even be considered negative.
Ongoing studies on the use of alternative carbohydrate sources, such as agricultural and household wastes, even suggest that PLA production can lead to a decrease in overall solid waste.
PLA is a thermoplastic , meaning it will turn into a liquid in its melting point of to Celsius. A nifty feature of thermoplastics is that they can be heated, set upon cooling, and reheated again to form other shapes without any degradation.
In contrast, a thermosetting plastic such as epoxy or melamine can only be heated and molded once, but the resulting product can no longer be reheated as it will just burn.
This property of PLA makes it a desirable material for recycling. PLA can be broken down to its original monomers by a thermal de-polymerization process or by hydrolysis.
The resulting monomer solution can be purified and used for subsequent PLA production without any loss of quality. Should a material made from PLA be incinerated, no toxic fumes will be generated.
The ease with which PLA melts makes it a material that is easy to work with. However, this also renders PLA unsuitable for high temperature applications such as containers made for holding hot liquids.
A material made from PLA may even show signs of getting soft or deforming on a hot summer day. PLA packaging material has been found to be more permeable to moisture and oxygen compared to other plastics, which may result in faster food spoilage.
Applications where toughness and impact resistance are critical may also be inappropriate for the more brittle PLA. PLA can be processed via extrusion, injection molding, casting, blown film, thermoforming, and fiber spinning to form useful and versatile products.
It is typically available in the market as thin films for thermoforming, plastic pellets for injection molding, or 3D printable filaments.
A variety of colors of PLA is available. Sturdier versions of PLA have been developed by mixing different PLA isomers, resulting in higher melting temperature higher by 40 to 50 Celsius and increased mechanical strength.
This improved version has seen a wide array of applications, such as microwavable containers and engineering plastics. Short-term applications such as food containers, water bottles, and disposable cutlery are a popular use for PLA.
A PLA film shrinks upon heating, making it a desirable material for shrink wrap. Remarks from firms that use PLA as material for food packaging indicate the preference for PLA due to increased aesthetics, better printability, good resistance to grease and oils, and reduced issues in taste and odor transfer.
PLA is widely used in the medical field due to its ability to degrade into non-toxic lactic acid. Medical implants such as screws, rods, pins and mesh have been made using PLA.
PLA can be extruded into thin fibers with significant mechanical strength. These PLA fibers have been used to manufacture casual sports apparel, upholstery material, hygiene products, and diapers.
Specifically, PLA is widely used in fused filament fabrication 3D printing , where PLA solids are encased in plaster-like mouldings to form moulds that can be filled with molten metal.
The development of cheaper and more environment friendly processes by which PLA is made should result in the decrease of its price in the market, leading to its more widespread application.
This will be further aided by a growing environmentally conscious consumer base. Issues with permeability, brittleness, and low melting temperature will have to be addressed by further research, but it is safe to say that PLA will continue to substitute petroleum-based plastics for pharmaceutical and food packaging materials in the future.